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The newest large breach, potentially affecting 143 million people in the US, was announced Thursday by Equifax at https://investor.equifax.com/news-and-events/news/2017/09-07-2017-213000628 . It also affected a small number of consumers in Great Britain and Canada. According to the Equifax PR statement, “Criminals exploited a U.S. website application vulnerability to gain access to certain files.”

There’s been at least one potential class-action suit already filed. The New York State Attorney General, Eric T. Schneiderman, has also opened an investigation.

Based on US Senator Al Franken’s Facebook post on Equifax, it might be a good idea to wait to sign up for Equifax credit monitoring until Equifax clarifies that you are not trading your rights to sue them or join a class-action suit in return for accepting their credit monitoring service. However, you should still visit the Equifax site (http://www.equifaxsecurity2017.com/) to find out if you are one of the affected parties. If your information was not affected (although I would not trust that completely), the site will continue on to give you the date when you will be allowed to sign up for credit monitoring if you should decide to do so. Make sure you note the date, because you will receive no other notice.

Since I cannot sign up for the TrustedID service yet, I have not personally read the agreements that Equifax has put in place.

Furthermore, credit monitoring usually just alerts you to an event that has already happened. It is not always accurate or even timely. Although good to know that something has happened, taking preventive action is better.

What should you do?

Act as if your information was stolen and move to block access to your credit and financial accounts. Yes, it’s painful, but far less painful, expensive, and time-consuming than dealing with identity theft. We need better oversight of credit bureaus, but in the meantime protect yourself. Your personal information is important for credit and insurance availability and costs, getting a job, and even renting an apartment or buying a home.

Brian Krebs has an article about credit freezes and credit monitoring at How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Embrace the Security Freeze. The FTC article on credit freezes is good, but Kreb’s article is more thorough and he explains about his personal experience with credit monitoring services. Here are the actions he recommends:

Update: Unfortunately, the pin that Equifax automatically assigns starts with the date you call you to start the credit freeze (i.e, 090917xxxx). The automatic pin is not random. To change it, you have to call 888-298-0045; the line is only available Monday – Friday 9 am to 5 pm (and the message doesn’t even tell you which time zone). You cannot change the pin on their website.

While Fraud Alerts are free, they have to be updated again every 90 days.

NPR.org is reporting that three Equifax executives sold small amounts of stock shortly after the breach was discovered. You can look at the SEC filings here; open the Beneficial filings to see what the stock sales were. Even though all 3 only sold a small portion of their holdings, it is still a lot of money – about $1.8 million. I find it hard to believe that the CFO was not alerted to a breach of the company. The stock price was $145.09 on July  28, 2017, before the breach (discovered on July 29, 2017); yesterday the stock closed at $123.23.

 

Today Equifax announced that a breach may have exposed 143 million consumers’ private information. Equifax has created a special website at https://www.equifaxsecurity2017.com/enroll/ so you can find out if you are affected (at least as far as they know right now) by the breach. They are also providing credit monitoring.

What should you do?

  1. Sign up for the complimentary identity theft protection and credit file monitoring product, called TrustedID Premier.
  2. Put a freeze on your credit at each of the three credit bureaus. The Federal Trade Commission has an article at https://www.consumer.ftc.gov/articles/0497-credit-freeze-faqs that explains the process of implementation and how to temporarily remove it when you apply for new credit.
  3. If you were affected by the breach, the Federal Trade Commission has a site that explains exactly what to do to keep your information safe. https://www.identitytheft.gov/

Common problems with IoT devices include their lack of privacy and security controls and their lack of transparency. “Transparency” in this case means that the end user knows and willingly agrees to how the device operates, especially on their home network.

I have recently been working on building a Raspberry Pi B+ home monitoring system. The Raspberry Pi is a handy little computer board geared to hobbyists or children learning to use computers; more than 12.5 million have been sold. Something that appalled me was the complete lack of discussion about securing the thing in the project plan I downloaded. Before you put any device on your home network, you should—at the very least!—change the default username and password (which for the Raspbian operating system is “pi” and “raspberry”).

Another example comes from the experience of a former co-worker who bought a new refrigerator, not knowing the refrigerator had network capabilities. The refrigerator tried to connect to her network. When she investigated further, the manufacturer said the network connection was used for troubleshooting maintenance issues and installing updates. What could possibly go wrong with a refrigerator that connects to a home network without the owner’s knowledge or consent? It probably has a hard-coded (unable to be changed) default username and password that a hacker could use to cause havoc with that refrigerator. For instance, maybe a hacker could shut the refrigerator off by connecting to it using the default username and password. Depending on when the owner realized that it was not working, an entire refrigerator worth of food could be spoiled. Or maybe they could override the water shutoff for the automatic ice maker, resulting in water all over the floor. It could also provide an entry point into the home network. Argh!

Then there’s the iRobot 900-series Roomba, which currently uses a camera and sensors to vacuum a home. It has mapping software that allows the robot to avoid objects in its path, know where it has already cleaned, return to the dock for recharging, and then pick up vacuuming where it left off. Handy!

According to Reuters, a new feature that iRobot is planning to introduce is sharable home maps. While mapping software could bring many benefits to a smart home—such as improved air flow, temperature regulation, and lighting—sharing such data publicly could be a mistake. Even if iRobot only shares with certain companies, what happens if one of those companies get breached? Could such a breach allow a thief access to download your home map to help them decide what to steal from your home?

Recordings from an Amazon Echo—which listens and records supposedly only conversations that have a keyword such as “Alexa” in them—have already been requested as evidence in an Arkansas murder court case.

There are some organizations that are currently claiming to be examining the security and privacy of IoT devices, which include:

  • AV-TEST Institute – you can check out their findings here.
  • I am the Cavalry – a grass-roots organization that looks at the computer security of medical devices, automobiles, home electronics, and public infrastructure here.
  • UL (formerly Underwriters Laboratory) has published UL 2900 ANSI Standard for Software Cybersecurity for Network-Connectable Products. Unfortunately, it costs between $225-250 for a copy of the standard and I cannot find any products that they have certified.

In the first session of the 115th Congress, Senators Warner, Gardner, Wyden, and Daines introduced the ‘‘Internet of Things (IoT) Cybersecurity Improvement Act of 2017.” While this act would currently only apply to IoT devices on government networks, hopefully most vendors would put the same security and privacy features in their consumer products. You can read a one-page summary of the bill here and a full version here.

Thank you Senators Warner, Gardner, Wyden, and Daines. Long overdue!

No security anywhere …

Posted: May 19, 2017 by IntentionalPrivacy in Conferences, Privacy, Theft, Vulnerabilities
Tags: , ,

I was at a conference yesterday. When I went to register, the computer system being used had a label with the username and password right next to the touchpad. There was a problem with my registration, so the conference sent me an email. It contained the names of three other people–unknown to me–at the conference.

Next, we went to the exhibits. The first trailer we went to was open and no one was there. On a table inside was an open, logged-in laptop and a cell phone. Who would have known if I had taken the laptop or phone, or worse, taken information from the laptop?

Pay attention to what you do. Always lock your laptop (press the Windows and L keys simultaneously) when you have to leave it with someone you trust and do not leave your belongings unattended in a vehicle, or at a conference, a restaurant, or a coffee shop.

WannaCry has effectively died down according to Wikipedia < https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WannaCry_ransomware_attack&gt;. However, if you do not WannaCry about some other malware, take some preventive actions now to make your systems less vulnerable to future attacks. If it is not easy to attack you or your computer systems, in most cases a thief will look for an easier target.

Organizations

  • Keep system and application versions up to date and patched, especially critical patches
    • If the organization still has to run computers running XP (or older operating systems), get them off the network
  • Keep antivirus software current and scan daily
  • Make regular, consistent backups (and test them to ensure files are recoverable)
  • Create network zones
  • Place public-facing web servers in DMZs
  • Restrict administrator rights
  • Change default passwords and enforce password rules on users
  • Train users in security awareness, especially how to avoid clicking harmful links
  • Take infected machines off the network and clean them up as soon as possible, so that the infection does not spread to other machines on the network

These actions alone will stop a considerable amount of malware and other attacks. They do not require expensive equipment or software, just the time to set them up. And these practices will help any organization better comply with regulatory requirements.

For instance, Microsoft came out with a critically rated security patch for Microsoft Windows SMB Server on March 14, 2017. This patch would have made Windows systems resistant to WannaCry. The WannaCry attack started on Friday, May 12, 2017, almost two months later. While I understand the need to test patches to ensure they will work in an environment, testing for a couple of weeks should be adequate, especially for critical updates.

Individual systems

Many of the same actions will keep your systems safe:

  • Keep system and application versions up to date and patched; in fact, set updates to run automatically and schedule them for  a convenient time frame
    • If you are running an older operating system such as XP, take it off the Internet
    • Uninstall applications that you no longer use from both your phones and computers
  • Keep antivirus software current and scan daily
  • Make regular, consistent backups (and test them to make sure files are recoverable)
  • Do not run with administrator rights
  • Change default passwords on routers and modems, and choose long, strong passwords for all your accounts
  • Do not click harmful links in email, on Facebook, or other websites

Prevention is the key for physical theft also.

Our neighborhood has been experiencing a recent rash of car break-ins and theft of items on porches. Many of these thefts happened when someone forgot to lock their car.

Be a little paranoid! Assume that someone is always watching you. For instance, you might not realize the dog walker walking by your house was watching you put a computer case in the trunk or that the 16 year old who lives next to you tries car doors at one am because he is bored or has a drug problem. Leaving a laptop in the car is not ever a good idea, but if you have to leave valuables in your car, put them in your trunk before you get to your destination. Lock your house and car as soon as you shut the door. Do not leave extra keys on your property or stashed on the car. Do not leave the garage door opener in the car. When you are working on that report in a coffeehouse, take your laptop, phone, keys, and wallet with you when you go to the restroom. Do not leave your purse or phone in a grocery cart when you turn around to pick out items for dinner.

Medical record theft is on the rise, and according to  Reuters ( http://www.reuters.com/article/us-cybersecurity-hospitals-idUSKCN0HJ21I20140924 ), a stolen medical record is worth ten times what a stolen credit card number on the black market. The reason medical records are worth so much more, is because they are used to steal benefits and commit identity theft and tax fraud.

How easy is it to steal medical records?

This morning, I read Brian Kreb’s report on True Health Diagnostics health portal, which allowed other patients’ medical test results to be read by changing one digit on the PDF link. The company—based in Frisco, Texas—immediately took the portal down and spent the weekend fixing it. https://krebsonsecurity.com/2017/05/website-flaw-let-true-health-diagnostics-users-view-all-medical-records/

While I think it is great they fixed the problem so rapidly, I am disgusted that our medical information is so often flapping in the breeze. Health professionals are notoriously lax about protecting their patients’ medical information. A security professional that I know defended medical people by saying they do not understand HIPAA/HITECH. Yes, I know they do not necessarily understand the technical details. But is ignorance an excuse? I do not think so. They have IT people to support those computers and medical professionals are supposed to attend HIPAA training on a regular basis.

For instance, upon reading the FAQs at http://www.holisticheal.com/faq-dna , I noticed that after a patient completes their tests (recommended by my doctor), this practitioner sent results in email. It is not a simple test like cholesterol; it contains information about someone’s DNA.

After I emailed them and told them I would not consider using their service because email is not secure unless encrypted and in my opinion this practice—sending medical results in unencrypted email—is contrary to HIPAA/HITECH, they changed their policy. While they now send the results for US patients on a computer disk through the mail, they still send international clients their results through email.

I have frequently caught my own medical professionals leaving their patient portals open when I am alone in the exam room or even away having tests. During one notable session, without touching the computer, I could see a list of all the patients being seen that day on the left, and the doctor’s schedule across the top (including 3 cancellations). Another medical professional texted me part of my treatment plan. (I thought we were limiting our text conversation to time, date, and location. Otherwise I never would have agreed to text. I had never even met this person!) Another provider grouped three receptionists with computers (no privacy screens) in a circle with windows on two sides. I could read two of the screens when signing in and the third when leaving and I saw them leave their screens open when they walked away from their computers so that the other receptionists can use those computers.

Granted, these incidents may not be breaches, but I think they are violations of HIPAA/HITECH and they could lead to breaches. What are the chances they are using appropriate access control, backing up their systems, encrypting their backups, thinking about third-party access? Are they vulnerable to phishing, crypto ransomware, hackers, employee malfeasance, someone’s child playing with the phone?

Yes, I get that people make mistakes. The problem is they have the ability to make mistakes! Set up fail safes. Require each employee’s phone to be physically encrypted and give them a way to send encrypted emails or texts or do not allow them to text or email patients. Make screens lock after five minutes or sooner. Give them training. Spot check what they’re doing.

I always discuss these issues when I notice them with the practice HIPAA Privacy Officer (and sometimes change medical providers if egregious). Does it help? Maybe. But it always makes me wonder what I have not seen.

Pay attention! Protecting your data helps protect everybody’s data.

I Am Not a Security Rockstar

Posted: May 8, 2017 by IntentionalPrivacy in Conferences
Tags:

I recently attended BSides Austin 2017, an information security conference. It is a wonderful conference! I greeted friends and met some great people. It was difficult to choose which presentations to attend there were so many interesting ones. I wanted to go to all of them! I also went to the Fire Marshall Talks, named for a memorable talk one year where the number of occupants were more than the fire marshall thought safe for the room size. Anyone who wants to speak can talk for ten minutes on any information security topic.

One of the talks this year dismayed me; the speaker spent his 10 minutes talking about all the “Security Rockstars” in the audience and how they refused to help him.

Since he did not give specific instances, I am not really sure what that meant to him. I looked around the room and saw many people I knew, security people who were passionate  about sharing with the security community through presentations or classes, online blogs and videos, and even mentoring. While I saw people who were notable contributors to InfoSec, I did not identify a single person I would call a “Security Rockstar.”

In spite of being a woman in security and information technology (over 20 years), I have rarely experienced a situation where someone would not help me. In fact, people have gone out of their way to give me assistance when I asked for it. Austin is that kind of place! Before I ask, I try everything I can think of and I have a focused question so I do not waste the person’s time. I attend conferences, such as BSides and LASCON, and meetings put on by OWASP, ISSA, and InfraGard to keep my skills current, learn about things I do not know, and to network. I often go to the weekly OWASP study sessions, which has given me some excellent ways to hone my skills. There are many opportunities for assistance if someone looks for them and is willing to put in some work.

I also contribute as much as I can. If I cannot help you, I will tell you that. If I know someone who knows more about your question, I will point you in their direction. I write this blog. I provide mentoring to anyone who wants to become a security professional. I think it is important because I believe that helping people work towards their goals helps the entire security community. But I cannot do the work for you. I will answer your question or point you toward resources I know about. What you do with them is up to you.

For instance, I met the speaker—a student on the brink of starting on his career—the evening before. I gave him my card, asked if he was looking for mentoring, told him about my blog, and said I would value his opinion about it. I have yet to hear from him.

To anyone who has run into an unhelpful person, I suggest you consider why the person asked may not be able to help:

  • It might be a temporary problem—they might be available at another time. For instance, if they have just given a presentation, they might need decompression time.
  • They might be worried about a personal problem: a lost client or position, money troubles, a work situation, or a family or pet illness or death.
  • They meant to help at a later time, but could not because they had no method of contact. Carry business cards or exchange email addresses.
  • Information security encompasses a wide range of skills and knowledge bases. The question asked could be outside their expertise, and they are too embarrassed to say so.
  • The question might be too general. If they tell you LMGTFY (“Let me Google that for you”), it means they believe you can figure it out yourself. Maybe you can clarify the question to better explain where you are stumped.

Of course, they really could be a Rockstar.

Also consider what you have to offer in exchange. One of the few times I have experienced a situation where someone would not help me was at a position where I was doing security assessments. One of my coworkers had a difficult time with reports. He copied and pasted sections from other reports to speed up the reporting process. I often read his reports to fix discrepancies, incomplete sentences and missing words, as well as spelling and grammar issues. One time he forgot to change the IP addresses to match the client’s. When I had a problem with the scanning software, I expected his help. But since he did not value my help with his reports; he said that I should figure it out myself. I was not asking for him to fix it (I was at a client site in another state) although I would have appreciated any suggestions he could give me. I thought I should at least have a contact with the software company so that I could put in a trouble ticket, but he—the administrator of the software—would not even give me that. Our boss finally made him give me the ability to turn in a trouble ticket.

While I did figure out a temporary solution (it was a software issue), it made for a very tense evening. I eventually left the company with great relief. I loved the work, but the company culture did not suit me.

I once read an article about how a bad situation can be a gift, because it can make you see that you need to change something—attitude, positions, relationships. Furthermore, Rockstars who will not help someone are their own worst enemies because everyone needs help sometimes. Their karma will catch up to them! Shake your head, send them a blessing, and find someone who will help you.

Remember to be grateful when someone does help you. They do not owe it to you.

But I am not a rock star! I do not want to be a rock star. I am merely someone doing a job to the best of my ability to help make the world a safer, more secure place.

A recent article in Wired called “Radio Attack Lets Hackers Steal 24 Different Car Models” at https://www.wired.com/2016/03/study-finds-24-car-models-open-unlocking-ignition-hack/ talks about how thieves can steal some car models by attacking keyless entry fobs.

It is a very informative article, but they do not talk much about possible solutions. Want to wait around while your automobile manufacturer comes up with a solution?

Our own cars—a 2015 Honda Accord and a manual-everything 2005 Honda Civic—are not on the list of vulnerable vehicles. While the 2005 Honda, which does not have keyless entry, is not susceptible to this type of radio attack, the 2015 Honda Accord might be. Although it was not one of the vehicles listed in the article, it might not have been one of the models tested. I looked at my key fob to see if there was some easy way to shut off keyless entry. Aside from taking out the battery, none was apparent. A switch on the key fob in a location that is not easily turned on or off (maybe inside the battery case) would be a great solution to this problem. Another possible plus? It might make the battery last longer!

When I Googled “2015 Honda Accord turn off keyless entry,” there were not many new solutions. Possible solutions include:

  • Removing the key fob battery. According to a YouTube video by Honda Pro, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kXiyku7Ye-c, the car will not start when the key is not in the car. However, it will still start when the key fob is present even if the battery is inoperative or removed. The key fob also contains a manual key, so entry is still available.
  • Making or buying a faraday cage. There are several types of faraday cages. According to Wikipedia, a faraday cage “is an enclosure used to block electromagnetic fields.” I tried wrapping my key in aluminum foil. Standing next to the 2015 Honda with the key wrapped in aluminum foil, I could still unlock the car. However, while I did not test it, it might limit the accessible distance for the key signal.

I do not like the option of putting my keys in the freezer, which is often touted as an easy faraday cage. For one thing, the moisture and the cold could be hard on the key electronics. Replacing the key is expensive and you would still have the problem with the new key. Another problem with this solution is that it only works when you have access to a refrigerator. Probably would not work at Starbucks!

Amazon.com offers Faraday pouches for sale for as little as $9 (plus shipping). There is a DIY faraday cage Instructable at http://www.instructables.com/id/Faraday-Cage-Phone-Pouch/ if you would like to make one yourself.

If anyone has other ideas about possible solutions to a keyless entry attack, leave a comment and I will update the article.

Remember, always lock your car, do not leave extra keys in hidden places on the vehicle, and remove or hide your valuables before you leave your car. It is also a good idea to remove your garage door opener from the car, especially if you leave the door between the house and the garage open.

A member of my family has recently been having some medical issues, and has been making the rounds of doctors and other medical practitioners. It is bad enough when someone doesn’t feel well, but what can make it worse? A medical professional being careless with our personal health information in spite of the medical privacy laws (HIPAA and HITECH). A visiting nurse called to make an appointment for a home visit, which turned into a SMS text dialogue. A question from the nurse left me speechless, “Have you received your {INSERT PRESCRIPTION BRAND NAME HERE} yet?”

Really? She really put part of the treatment plan in an unencrypted text message?

Text messaging by a medical professional should be limited to location and time of appointment.

I informed her that in my opinion putting a prescription name in an unencrypted text message was a violation of HIPAA, especially since the patient had never met the nurse or signed any HIPAA disclosures. She said she deleted the messages from her phone and gave me the name of her supervisor. I called the woman, who wasn’t available. I left a voice mail message, saying that I was concerned because putting treatment details in an unencrypted text message was a violation of HIPAA.

Strike two: A week later, no one from the nursing service has called me back.

I called the company that ordered the nursing service, explained what happened and asked that the service be cancelled. I took the patient to the doctor’s office—much less convenient—but a better option in this case. I was concerned that the nurse might be using a personal phone that did not have encryption on it, that she might have games installed (a common source of malware), that she did not use a pass code to lock her phone or that her phone did not automatically lock, or any of 100 different bad scenarios. What further concerned me is that I did not receive a call back from the nursing company. They are supposed to have a HIPAA Privacy Officer, who should have returned my call and explained what they were doing to protect the patient’s information in the future. At the very least, the nurse should have been required to re-take HIPAA Patient Privacy training (which is mandated to occur yearly anyway by the Office of Civil Rights).

Why is this such a big deal?

When you consider that your medical record is worth more to an identity thief than your credit card, it is a very big deal. A CNBC article published on March 11,2016, “Dark Web is fertile ground for stolen medical records,” stated:

While a Social Security number can be purchased on the dark Web for around $15, medical records fetch at least $60 per record because of that additional information, such as addresses, phone numbers and employment history. That in turn allows criminals to file fake tax returns.

Your credit card might be worth one or two dollars at most.

Another informative article, “Is Texting in Violation of HIPAA?,” appears in The HIPAA Journal.

If you feel that your medical privacy has been violated, you can file a complaint with the Office of Civil Rights.

I’m going to call the nursing service again on Monday and ask to speak with their HIPAA Privacy Officer and try to explain my concerns.

The Bottom Line: They lost a client!

The number one rule for safely using a debit card: Don’t! But, if you have to use a debit card, here are some suggestions from two of Austin’s leading computer security experts.

Michael Gough and Brian Boettcher are co-creators of LOG-MD, a sophisticated analytical tool used by computer security professionals. I recently had a conversation with them about how to use credit cards and debit cards more safely.

They said: Limit debit card use to only one local grocery store chain, especially if it has gas stations and stays open 24 hours a day. That way you can get cash without using the card in an outside ATM. Of course, the risk of being robbed is also much higher at an ATM. If you always use the same grocery store, then if the number is stolen, you know where it happened.

They said: Do not ever use a debit card at a self-service checkout, an ATM, or a gas pump. It is almost impossible to tell if the card reader has been compromised.

(Brian Krebs, who writes the blog KrebsOnSecurity, talks about card skimmers in this series of articles. Krebs updates these articles on a regular basis and they are well worth reading. In fact, as I have mentioned before, his column is a great place to find out about security issues.)

They said: You may also be able to buy store gift cards with your debit card to use at their gas pumps without having to pay a fee to use them the way you do with MasterCard or Visa cards. And the cards may even be reloadable. The one drawback? If the card is lost or stolen, the money on it is not replaced the way it would be if you used a credit card.

They said: Do not use a debit card at a restaurant. You have no idea if the person is using a hand-held skimmer on your card. Someone may have placed a skimmer on the restaurant’s card terminal.

 (Restaurants are weak in security because the staff holds your cards out of your sight and out of your control. The authors of this blog each had fraudulent charges placed on their cards after two visits to the same restaurant in the same week. We usually take turns paying. We had different servers each night. We think that they had a little ring going.)

They said: Debit cards are less secure than credit cards because debit cards are directly hooked to a bank account or credit union account. If a debit card gets compromised, your account can be drained. It may take some time—even months—to get the money replaced in your account. And the money may not be replaced at all since it is not insured as it is with a credit card.

They said: Most banks and credit unions are helpful about getting a new debit card, but if a credit card gets compromised, usually a new card can be received in 2 or 3 days, maybe even faster if you can pick it up at your financial institution.

Here are their recommendations for safer credit-card use:

They said: Get a second card with a low limit. This card should be mainly used at less safe locations: public kiosk use (think train tickets or parking) and online shopping, as well as automatic payments. If you have to use self-service checkouts, use the second card. Avoiding self-service checkouts is the best strategy.

They said: That second card can be a handy back-up, in case your main credit card is lost or stolen.

They said: Look over your statements on a regular basis for transactions that you did not make.

They said: Patronize companies that use chip and signature (in the US) card terminals, which in most cases was supposed to be in place in the US by October 2015. Europe uses chip and pin. If a company still has not upgraded from magnetic stripe terminals, tell them why you do not want to shop there. (Or only use cash there.) Gas pump card terminals are required by major credit card brands to be updated to use chip and signature (in the US) by October 2017.

They said: Keep a list of automatic payments, and when they renew. Cancel automatic payments as soon as possible when you switch to another card.

One problem with automatic payments is that they may move to a new card even if you did not authorize it.

They said: Some cards (American Express is one example) will allow you to set a daily limit on spending. They usually alert you as soon as possible if spending goes over that limit.

They said: Replace your cards at least every two years.

They said: Put a credit freeze on your credit. The FTC explains the pros and cons of credit freezes here. There may be a small charge for freezing and unfreezing your credit file, but it is cheaper than credit monitoring, which will not tell you about a breach until after it has already happened.

Michael said: Using credit monitoring is like going to a dentist who only monitors your teeth, but does not fix any cavities found.

They said: Get a copy of your credit report from each of the three credit bureaus yearly. You can cycle them so you get one every four months.

They said: As soon as you hear about a mass data breach that could involve your accounts, call your bank or credit union and request a new card. Do not wait for a notification.

They said: Keep records of each card, the card numbers, the customer service phone numbers and addresses. (It is pretty easy these days to make blow-up copies of the fronts and backs of your cards.)

Michael Gough has worked in the IT and Information Security field for over 18 years. He has a wide variety of experience that includes positions as a security analyst for the State of Texas and the financial and health-care sectors, and security consulting with Hewlett Packard. Michael currently works in the health-care sector as a Blue Team Defender, incident responder, and malware fighter.

Michael has created or co-created several tools used in the security industry, such as LOG-MD, which is a logging tool, and the “Malware Management Framework,” which is used to discover and manage malware. In 2012, Michael discovered a type of malware called Winnti that continues to plague gaming and pharmaceutical companies.

 Brian Boettcher, co-creator of LOG-MD and co-host of Brakeing Down Security, has worked in the IT and Information Security fields for a number of years. Brian currently works as a senior security engineer and incident responder. He is a member of several security groups and presents regularly at security functions.Do not ever use a debit card at a self-service checkout, an ATM, or a gas pump. It is almost impossible to tell if the card reader has been compromised.